Battle of Chamkaur History, Folklore and Symbolism

Battle of Chamkaur is said to be one of the most important & historic events in the history of Sikhs. It was fought on the night of 6th December 1705.

Guru Gobind Singh, along with his two elder sons and another 40 devoted warriors’ were resting in a camp outside Chamkaur, which is located in the Ropar district of Punjab and belonged to Rai Jagat Singh at that time.

The battle was fought between the Khalsa, which was led by Guru Gobind Singh and the forces of the Mughals, which was led by Wazir Khan. The reference for this battle is written in the victory letter Zafarnama written by Guru Gobind Singh.

History of Battle of Chamkaur

After Guru Gobind Singh along with his sons and his loyal man left Anandpur Sahib on the night of 5th and 6th December 1704, they then crossed the Sarsa river and finally stopped at Chamkaur.

History of Battle of Chamkaur
History of Battle of Chamkaur

They asked the city chief for sheltering them for the night in their personal Haveli.

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The elder brother thought that giving shelter to these people will be very dangerous and hence he refused. But the younger brother, who was full of mercy permitted them to stay for the night.

But the Mughals were able to learn that all people, along with Guru Gobind Singh were hiding in the Haveli.

It is then that the battle of Chamkaur started and is said to have taken place outside the Haveli, where the Guru himself was resting with his people.

Both sides tried to negotiate but it was all in vain and resulted in the battle. The Sikhs got involved in the battle and gave the chance to their Guru for escaping.

One of the devotees of Guru Gobind Singh resembled the Guru decided to stay behind with the remaining soldiers wearing the clothes of Guru Gobind Singh.

The next morning every Sikh was killed by the Mughal forces.

It is believed that the handful of Sikh Warriors were able to engage with a large number of Mughal troupes because of their training in the martial art of Gatka during the Battle of Chamkaur.

Vantage Points in Battle of Chamkaur

Guru Govind Singh was aware of all the positions in the valleys present on the battlefield. He had the advantage of having to know the compound during the skirmishes which had taken place many years ago in 1702.

Vantage of Battle of Chamkaur
Vantage of Battle of Chamkaur

Thus, he positioned two of his very best man Madan Singh & Kotha Singh at the single entry present in the north-facing along with 8 of his other bravest warriors at the vantage points along each of the 4 compound walls present in the area.

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Guru Gobind Singh, along with his sons directed the battle from secure positions by staying within the center of the two-story house from where it was easy & possible for them to shoot down the enemy with the help of arrows and their crossbows.

Sant Singh and Daya Singh climbed to the top story of the building along with Aleem Singh and Mansingh acting as their lookouts during the battle time.

All these people were experts in using weapons and armor and fought the Battle of Chamkaur from these vantage points with outermost bravery and courage.

These Warriors had a very small store where the weaponry was kept including the matchlock firearms along with the ball and the powder. These were carried by the brave Himmat Singh to Anandpur for battle.

Tackling the Mughal Horde

On the day of 7th December 1705, during the time of sunrise, 2 officers from the Mughal Empire Khwaja Muhammad and Nahar Khan send a message with the terms and conditions of the treaty & demanded the submission of the answer to the Islamic law.

Tackling the Mughal Horde
Tackling the Mughal Horde in the Battle of Chamkaur

This Treaty was declined by Guru Gobind Singh and his sons and also by the valiant warriors as they refused to bow down in front of them.

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The elder Sahibzaade, Ajit Singh reacted to this particular treaty with anger and outreach and demanded the Mughal officers for remaining silent and returning to their masters or the king.

As a result, the Mughal emperors ordered their men to mercilessly attack the outnumbered army of Guru Gobind Singh.

Guru Gobind Singh along with his brave army responded to the fierce attack by the Mughal emperors and tried to defend their fortress from the Mughal horde.

The Mughal army advanced with their full force and deadly accuracy. The weapon room of the Khalsa, which was very small and had a limited amount of arrows and deamination, which quickly got exhausted and by the late afternoon.

Only the hand to hand the Battle of Chamkaur option was left with Khalsa to avoid the surrender and the forced conversion to the Islamic law.

Embracing the Fate

Guru Gobind Singh Ji and his courageous warriors fearlessly embraced whatever was coming towards them and whatever was written in their fate.

Embracing the Fate
Embracing the Fate in the Battle of Chamkaur

5 valiant Warriors fearlessly charged through the compound Gates and met with their death face to face. They fought fearlessly and killed many enemies before succumbing to their injuries and wounds in the the Battle of Chamkaur.

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Dhyan Singh, Daan Singh, and Khasam Singh also fought till the last breath and killed hundreds of Mughals before tolling on to their adversaries and meeting with their death with full courage.

Mukham Singh also took his last breath with the Mughal warriors and killed many Mughals for his Khalsa. He left his life riddled with scores of any musket balls.

Himmat Singh bid adieu to Guru Gobind Singh while fighting the Mughal warriors and destroyed many Mughals before coming to his injuries.

Deva Singh and Ishwar Singh fought with utmost courage and bravery for the Khalsa and impressed many other warriors and also increased them for fighting with full potential and without any fear.

Five Sikhs, who remain unnamed till the present are famous for their heroic act of killing the most number of Mughal warriors with their crossbows and sword and also invoking the fear in the hearts of their opponent.

Six warriors who fought together for Guru Gobind Singh and their Khalsa killed many of their enemies and proved their worth before they were cautiously expired one by one on the battlefield.

These 6 bands of Warriors included Amolak Singh, Anand Singh, Lal Singh, Kesar Singh, Kirat Singh, and Muhar Singh.

The Mughal officers Nahar Khan and Gareth Khan and some of the soldiers of the Mughal Empire died while attempting to breach the compound wall and killing the Khalsa.

The heroic martyrdom of the Khalsa warriors prevented them from invading into the compound and winning the war.

Martyrdom of Elder Sahabzaade

The two sons of Guru Gobind Singh requested and placed the thought of facing the enemy without any fear in front of the father.

Martyrdom of Elder Sahabzada
Martyrdom of Elder Sahabzada in the Battle of Chamkaur

1. Ajit Singh

Ajit Singh, who was 18 years old at that particular time and was the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh asked for permission from his father for going out on the battlefield and facing the enemy without any fear face to face.

He went out and lead the charge along with Aleem Singh, Bir Singh, Dhyan Singh, Jawahar Singh, Sukha Singh, and Veer Singh.

He fought fearlessly and with courage along with the Sikhs and the Mughal officer Zabardasth Khan retaliated full force overwhelming the Ajit Singh and his brave warriors with sheer numbers.

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2. Zorawar Singh

Zorawar Singh, who was 14 years old at that particular time was the Second Son of Guru Gobind Singh and also sought permission from his father for going out into compound and facing the Mughal Army.

He also got martyrdom along with the 5 heroic companions whose names are not known but are famous in the world because of their deeds and as the ones who had the capability of surviving the mortality.

It is also famous that these particular courageous heroes fiercely and boldly went into the hands of the Army enemy and killed the majority of them just like a crocodile kills his prey in the water mercilessly.

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When both the sons of Guru Gobind Singh got martyrdom, the remaining five brave Sikhs survived and fought till the last breath for defending Guru Gobind Singh.

Immortal Panj Pyare

As the day came to an end the remaining warriors of the Khalsa requested Guru Gobind Singh for making a safe getaway.

Immortal Panj Pyare
Immortal Panj Pyare in the Battle of Chamkaur

They wanted their Guru to be safe at the time of the battle and requested him to leave the battlefield once the sunsets.

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Guru Gobind Singh declined the request and said that he wished to remain with his beloved devotees and fight with the enemies until his last breath.

Daya Singh, Mansingh, Dharam Singh, Sant Singh, and Sangat Singh together held a council and then concluded that Guru Gobind Singh should escape the battlefield for the survival of the Khalsa.

Because of their decision, these five brave Sikhs became famous by the name of Panj Pyare. They became the living representatives of Guru Gobind Singh for all the time in the future.

Guru Gobind Singh celebrated these five brave warriors and submitted his armor and other articles of sovereignty to them in the form of his pleasure of submission.

Getaway of Guru Gobind Singh

The Brave Warriors devised a plan for saving their beloved Guru of the Khalsa.

Getaway of Guru Gobind Singh
Getaway of Guru Gobind Singh in the Battle of Chamkaur

Sangat Singh wore the clothes of Guru Gobind Singh & also attached to the armor of the Guru and also placed the Gurus feathered plume in the crest of his turban.

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He then climbed to a very prominent place where he could be easily spotted by the enemies in the latter part of the day and also held the golden arrow over his head.

Guru Gobind Singh held a torch in his hand while he slipped barefoot to the gates of the compound at night. Sant Singh gave his life defending is Guru of Khalsa.

The remaining 3 warriors, along with Guru Gobind Singh got entry into the enemy camp and created chaos that Guru Gobind Singh was successful in escaping the compound.

Because of this news, the Mughal Warriors got terrified and started slaying each other in the dark.

Meanwhile, Sangat Singh, who was guarding the compound in the form of Guru Gobind Singh was killed by the ferocious Mughal army. They were celebrating their win over the body of Sangat Singh when they realized their error.

Till that time, Guru Gobind Singh along with the remaining three warriors had disappeared into the night while taking different routes.

Significance of the Battle of Chamkaur

The battle of Chamkaur has a lot of significance in the history of the Khalsa and the Sikhs.

Significance of Battle of Chamkaur
Significance of Battle of Chamkaur

This particular battle of Chamkaur shows the courage and the Fearless nature of the Khalsa Warriors and how they happily sacrificed their life and got martyrdom for their beloved Khalsa Guru Gobind Singh.

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The sacrifices and the bravery which was shown by the Khalsa Warriors has set an example for all the people around the world about how a person should not leave his or her place of right it and should fight for it.

It also holds the significance of the martyrdom of the elder Sahibzaade of Guru Gobind Singh.


The battle of Chamkaur is considered to be one of the most important and historic events in the history of the Sikhs.

It tells the story of the bravery and courage of the handful of Khalsa warriors who got martyred while defending their beloved Guru Gobind Singh and their land.

It also narrates the story of the martyrdom of the elder Sahibzaade and the act of valor of the Panj Pyare.

People Also Ask (FAQs)

Which famous Sikhs are famous by the name of Panj Pyare?

The five Sikhs who are famous by the name of Panj Pyare are Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, Man Singh, Sangat Singh, and Sant Singh.

Which sahabzaada got martyrdom while fighting during the battle of Chamkaur?

Sahabzaada Ajit Singh at the age of 18 years got martyred during the battle of Chamkaur. He fought against the large army of Mughals very bravely and also killed many officers.