The dispute between Ayodhya Ram Mandir and Babri Mosque has now lasted for a long time. The dispute came from the city of Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh, India, which is said to be the birthplace of the Hindu god Shri Ram.
Ayodhya Ram Mandir is the name of the place, which is birthplace of Lord Rama, believed to be the 4th incarnation of God Vishnu. Ramayana said that birthplace of Rama was on the banks of the Sarayu River in a city of Ayodhya.
One of the longest battles in Indian legal history has just ended.
What is the History of Ayodhya Ram Mandir?
Let’s put light on some important milestones in the case and also witnessed the birth of one of the most important political mobilizations in modern India in the form of the Ayodhya Ram Mandir movement.
In traditional history, Ayodhya was the early capital of the Kingdom of Kosala, although, during the Buddhist era (6th to 5th century BC), Shlavasti became the main city of the kingdom.
Scholars generally believe that Ayodhya is the same as the town of Sakta, and it is said that the Buddha had lived here for a while.
Later its importance as a center of Buddhism can be seen from the statement of the Chinese monk Faxian in the 5th century AD that there are 100 monasteries there.
There are many other monuments, including a stupa that is said to have been built by Emperor Mauriyan Ashoka (3rd century BC). Harikatha, Burra Kathas, Bhajan program are carried out here.
“Akhanda Anandam” are also performed here. The Vedic ceremony was hosted by Brahma Sri Palakurthi Narsimha Rama Sindhanthi and Sri Gattepally Sharabharadyulu Garu.
The Kingdom of Kanauj was born in Ayodhya in the 11th and 12th centuries AD and was then called Awadh. The area was later included in the Sultanate of Delhi, the Kingdom of Jaunpur, and the Mughal Empire in the 16th century.
Awadh gained some degree of independence in the early 18th century, but in 1764 it was subordinate to the British East India Company. In 1856, the company was annexed by the United Kingdom; in 1856 it was annexed by the United Kingdom.
The annexation of hereditary land income recipients and subsequent loss of rights was one of the reasons for the Indian mutiny in 1857.
Awadh joined the Agra Presidential Palace in 1877, forming the Northwest Province, and then the United Province of Agra and Awadh, which is now Uttar Pradesh.
Although the town is outstanding, there are almost no ancient remains. Babri Masjid (“Babul Mosque”) was built in the early 16th century by Mughal emperor Babur.
It was traditionally identified as the birthplace of Rama and the seat of the ancient Hindu temple Ram Janambhoomi. Because it is important for both Hindus and Muslims, the site is often a matter of dispute.
What is the Ayodhya Ram Mandir Case about?
The center of the platoon is a 16th-century mosque that was demolished by Hindu mobs in 1992, triggering riots and killing nearly 2,000 people.
Many Hindus believe that Babri Masjid was built on the ruins of a Hindu temple that was destroyed by Muslim invaders.
Muslims say they prayed to the mosque until December 1949, when some Hindus put the Ram idols in the mosque and began to worship these idols.
What is the significance of Ayodhya Ram Mandir Case?
The earliest legal history recorded in the Ayodhya dispute can be traced back to 1858. On November 30, 1858, Mohd Salim submitted an FIR to a group of Nihang Sikhs who installed Ni Shan and wrote the word “Ram” in the Babri Mosque.
They also performed Havan and Puja. The Awadh branch SHO Sheetal Dubey confirmed this complaint in a report on December 1, 1858, even saying that the Sikhs had built a Chapel (platform).
This legal struggle began in 1885 when Mahanth Raghubar Das filed a lawsuit against the Indian Secretary of State in the Faizabad Civil Court.
Das filed a lawsuit claiming he was a general, and the chabutra in the outer court should be allowed to build a temple there.
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The lawsuit was dismissed. In 1886, a civil appeal was filed against the 1885 judgment. Magistrate FER Chamber of Faizabad decided to visit the site before or before the passage.
A second civil appeal was filed against this dismissal, which was also rejected by the Court of Justice. In the next 63 years, there was no legal progress in this case.
In 1934, there was a riot in Ayodhya, and Hindus destroyed part of the structure at the disputed location. This part was rebuilt by the British.
What were the foundations of the Ayodhya Ram Mandir Case?
On January 16, 1950, Gopal Singh Visharad of the Hindu Maha Sebha became the first person in the case to file a lawsuit in independent India.
Gopal Visharad filed a lawsuit against five Muslims, the state government, and the local magistrate of Faizabad district, demanding their right to pray in the inner courtyard.
On the same day, the civil judge passed an injunction that granted the law conference.
On May 25, Pramahans Ramchandra Das filed a second lawsuit against Zahoor Ahmad and others, similar to the first lawsuit. Nine years later, on December 17, 1959, Nirmohi Akhada filed a third lawsuit requesting the receiver to take over management.
Two years later, on December 18, 1961, the Sunni Central Waqf Committee, together with all the defendants mentioned in the previous lawsuit, filed a fourth lawsuit in the Civil Judge Faizabad Court to pray for the expulsion of idols and the transfer of mosque property.
On March 20, 1963, the court ruled that the entire Hindu community cannot be represented by a minority.
It ordered an announcement to require the Hindu Maha Sabha, Aria Samaj, and Sanatán Damma Sabha as defendants, representing the Hindu Guild.
On January 25, 1986, the defense lawyer Umesh Chandra Pandey applied Faizabad, the Mansiev Magistrates ’Court, praying that the lock should be opened and that Allow people to hide the idols found inside.
A judge in Munsif magistrate rejected the application, saying that documents related to the case had been submitted to the High Court. Pandey appealed the order in the Faizabad District Court on January 31, 1986.
On February 1, both DM and SP of Faizabad admitted in court that as long as the lock is opened, there will be no problem in maintaining peace. The court ordered that the lock be opened and opened on the same day.
That was the turning point in the Ayodhya dispute, which changed India’s political line. After the lock was opened, Muslim leaders met in Lucknow on February 6 to form the Babri Masjid Action Committee with Zafaryab Jilani as convener.
On July 1, 1989, a fifth lawsuit was filed by former Allahabad High Court judge Deoki Nandan Agarwal before the Faizabad’s civil.
It prayed to hand over the entire site to Ram Lala to build a new temple. In 1989, the Shia Waqf Committee also filed a lawsuit and became the defendant in the case.
On July 12, 1989, the Allahabad High Court passed an order to transfer all proceedings to the three judges of the High Court.
From October 7 to 10, 1991, the BJP state government acquired the disputed houses and some adjacent areas (a total of 2.77 acres of land) according to the Land Acquisition Act to develop its tourism industry.
Muslims challenged this acquisition through six petitions. The Supreme Court canceled the acquisition on December 11.
On December 6, 1992, despite the provisional orders passed by the Supreme Court and the High Court, the mosque was demolished and 49 flight information areas were registered among several people including the leader of the People’s Party.
When were the idols found earlier inside the Babri Mosque?
On the evening of December 22-23, 1949, idols were found in the central dome of the mosque.
Then, Faizabad DM KK Nayar informed UP Chief Minister Govind Ballabh Pant on the morning of December 23 that a group of Hindus had entered the site when it was abandoned and idols were placed.
The case was submitted to FIR, and the gate was locked on the same day.
On December 29, the District Court passed an order under Article 145 of the CrPC to return all of its property and appointed Nagar Mahapalika president Priya Datt Ram as a receiver.
A week later, on January 5, 1950, Priya Datt Ram took charge as a receiver.
What was the Demolition aftermath of the Ayodhya Ram Mandir?
On December 21, 1992, Hari Shankar Jain submitted a petition to Judge Lucknow of the Allahabad High Court, which was his basic right to worship Lord Ram.
On January 1, 1993, the High Court ruled that every Hindu has the right to worship in what is believed to be the birthplace of Lord Ram i.e Ayodhya Ram Mandir.
However, aware of the further troubles, the central government issued a decree on January 7, 1993-the acquisition of the central district of Ayodhya-and acquired 67 acres of land, including the disputed location and its surrounding area.
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The central government also submitted a reference to Supreme Court to determine whether there was Ayodhya Ram Mandir before the construction of Babri Masjid.
Immediately after being acquired by the government, Mohd Ismail Farooqi submitted a petition to the Supreme Court to challenge it.
The Standards Committee formed a bench of five judges to hear relevant references. On October 24, 1994, the Supreme Court ruled that the acquisition was valid.
13 years after the Allahabad High Court accepted the case in March 2002, it began hearings on the title suit in the Ayodhya dispute. In July 2003, the Allahabad High Court ordered excavation at the disputed location.
The Indian Archaeological Survey (ASI) conducted excavations and submitted a report on August 22, 2003. ASI said in the report that there is a huge building below the controversial building, and there are artifacts of Hindu pilgrimage.
What was the three-way split done for Ayodhya Ram Mandir Case?
On September 30, 2010, Judges Dharamveer Sharma, Sudhir Agarwal, and SU Khan of the High Court of Allahabad The judgment was made in the title lawsuit.
It divided the controversial land into three parts, namely Ram Lala, Nirmohi Akhada, and Sunni Waqf Board.
All parties-Ram Lala Virajman, Sunni Waqf Board, and Nirmohi Akhada against the Allahabad High in the Supreme Court, The court’s decision appealed.
On May 9, 2011, after accepting appeals from Hindu and Muslim organizations, Judges Aftab Alam and RM Lodha suspended the judgment of Judge Lucknow of the High Court in 2010 and instructed the parties to maintain their original status.
What was the Ayodhya Ram Mandir Case Verdict?
On January 8, 2019, the Supreme Court established a bench of 5 judges in Ayodhya Ram Mandir case to listen to titles. Two days later, Justice UU Lalit rescued himself from the five benches.
In February 2019, India’s Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and Justice Ashok Bhushan, Justice Nazeer, Justice Bobde and Justice Chandrachud formed a five-member bench.
A mediation committee overseen by the court was proposed on the bench. Former SC Judge FM Kalifulla, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, and senior defense lawyer Sriram Panchu were in the mediation team.
The mediation began on March 13 at Awad University in Faizabad. There were seven rounds of discussion, but no results were achieved. On August 2, the court decided to start regular hearings from August 6.
The Supreme Court hears the case regularly for 40 days. In the past 11 days, the parties have spent an additional hour completing their arguments.
The debate on the parties in the case was completed on October 16, and the judgment was retained on the Ayodhya Ram Mandir case.
The Supreme Court delivered a landmark judgment in the Ayodhya Ram Mandir Land Dispute case, which will have a profound impact.
A five-judge Supreme Court judge, led by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi, read the unanimously passed judgment, ruling in favor of Ram Janmabhoomi.
It said that the disputed location will have Ayodhya Ram Mandir and Muslims will receive another 5 acres of land as a mosque.
The Supreme Court heard over 40 days of unresolved land disputes in Ayodhya Ram Mandir Case and announced a historic verdict on November 9, 2019 as the country gasped and waited.
Highlights of the Ayodhya Ram Mandir Case Verdict
- The Supreme Court has awarded all the 2.77 acres of disputed land in Ayodhya to the god Ram Lalla.
- The Supreme Court instructed the Central and Uttar Pradesh governments to allocate another 5 acres of land to Muslims in a prominent place to build mosques.
- The court has asked the center to consider granting Nirmohi Akhara a certain agency right when building trust. Nirmohi Akhara is the third party to the Ayodhya dispute.
- The Supreme Court rejected Nirmohi Akhara’s request that he was seeking control of the entire disputed land, saying they were the custodians of the land.
- The Supreme Court instructed the coalition government to set up a trust fund within 3 months to build Ayodhya Ram Mandir in a disputed location, which was demolished by Babri Majid in 1992.
- The Supreme Court said that the underlying structure under the controversial Ayodhya site is not Islamic, but ASI has not yet determined whether to demolish the temple to build the mosque.
- The court also said that the Hindus believed that the controversial place was the birthplace of Lord Ram, and Muslims also held the same view on the location of the Babri Mosque.
- The court also stated that the Hindus ’belief that Lord Ram was born in a controversial place where the Babri Mosque once stood was indisputable.
- The Supreme Court also stated that the removal of the 16th century Babri Masjid Mosque in 1992 was against the law.
- In reading the verdict, the Supreme Court stated that the UP Sunni Central Waqf Committee failed to determine its case in the Ayodhya dispute, and the Hindus have determined that their case is the outer court where they have the disputed site.
The Supreme Court, in a unanimous verdict on November 9, 2019, paved the way for the construction of Ayodhya Ram Mandir Temple at the disputed site & directed the Center to allot a 5-acre plot to the Sunni Waqf Board for building a mosque.
The verdict shows that “judicial tactics and politicians abide by the legal provisions, but remedies have been made in consideration of the actual situation on the ground.
Will the verdict lead to the end of hostile relations in the past and help eliminate India’s growing religious differences? Only time will answer.
People Also Ask (FAQs)
What is Ayodhya Ram Mandir issue?
The political, historical and socio-religious debate over the history and location of the Babri Mosque, and whether a previous temple was demolished or modified to create it, is known as the Ayodhya Ram Mandir dispute. In 1992, the demolition of Babri Masjid by Hindu nationalists triggered widespread Hindu-Muslim violence.
When was Ayodhya Ram Mandir demolished in Ayodhya?
As per Hindu beliefs, an ancient temple stood at the birthplace to mark the spot. And that the Ayodhya Ram Mandir was demolished in 1528 by first Mughal emperor Babur when he built a mosque – Babri Masjid – which was subsequently demolished by Kar sevaks on December 6, 1992.
Is Ayodhya the birthplace of Rama?
The Ramayana states that the location of Rama’s birthplace is on the banks of the Sarayu river in a city called “Ayodhya”. A section of Hindus claims that the exact site of Rama’s birthplace is where the Babri Masjid once stood in the present-day Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh.
Who was the first king of Ayodhya?
According to Ramayana, Ayodhya was founded by Vaivasvata Manu (son of Lord Surya, and a descendant of Lord Brahma) and the first ruler of Ayodhya was Ikshvaku (Son of Vaivasvata Manu).
Who is Ram Lalla in Ayodhya Ram Mandir?
The Supreme Court has held that the deity Ram Lalla is the rightful owner of the disputed land in Ayodhya. The court has asked the government to form a trust that will manage the land and any construction thereof. The 2.77 acres disputed and will be handed over to the trust which has to be formed within three months.